Table 2
Study Reviews 1996-2001


Study Type/ Affiliation

Publication Type

Type of Computer Technology/ Application

Effects Academic

Effects Social

Cost Efficacy

Barron, Hogarty, Kromrey, & Lenkway, (1999).

Large state assessment.



Safe schools and academic achievement research establishes a theoretical base but no empirical data to support the claim that computer influences on behavior influences academic performance.

Reductions in conduct violations and disciplinary actions and improved attendance in all grade levels.


CD e.s. -.14

DA e.s -.-10/-.13

AT  e.s. .25


CD e.s. -.35

DA e.s -.21/-.18

AT  e.s. –.09


CD e.s. -.23

DA e.s .19/-.05

AT  e.s. .09


Hawkins, Spielvogel, & Panush (1996)

Large, multiple case study design

Center for Children and Technology



Positive General

Emphasize leadership development and teacher development with technology.

Vision of technology and education.

Course content and technology.

Invest in all grades lower amounts lower grades more amounts upper grades.

Coordinated budgets.

Many financing options.


St. Clair (1999)

Large, summative evaluation, primarily quantitative/

Detroit Public Schools

ERIC Document



Grade 4 and 7 MAEP and MAT 7, math and reading comparable performances against control group.

ACHIP students underperformed on the science section of the MAT 7 against the control group.

Teachers enjoyed using the ACHIP devices and felt they helped in student learning.

That the ACHIPS program was not cost effective and that the Manufacturer bears some responsibility in fixing the problems with the hardware.

Johnson (2000)

NAEP Reading/

Heritage Foundation



Neutral Reading

Students with at least one weekly instruction by well prepared teachers have comparable performance to students who use computers less or not at all. 


Since no significant improvement cost of technology is not warranted.

Spielvogel (2001)

Large Multiple case study/

IBM Corporation


Varied but all IBM products


Significant impact on grades 7-11 in math, language arts, social studies, science especially for low performing students. Higher performing students maintain their performance edge.

1st grade reading achievement improvements in reading level, word recognition, and comprehension.

Improved relationship between school and business.

Improved professional development of teachers. Improved school leadership.

Need more technology  expenditures in education especially in teacher and school leadership development.

Mann, (1997)

Large scale New York State



PositiveMath and English Secondary and Positive Math Elementary

7.5 increase in Math Regent scores compared to control group

8.8 increase in English Regent scores compared to control.

Greatest increase in 6th grade math scores on the Comprehensive Assessment Report.

Improved professional development of teachers.

Schools spend less than industry on technology training. Greater savings could be realized by increasing class size with more technology to support. 

Kusimo, (1998)

Large scale primarily qualitative study/Appalachia Education Lab

ERIC Document



Improved intellectual inquiry, language writing skills.  Across age and grade levels.

Social interaction improved among all school members, improved methods of professional development.


Wenglinsly (1998)

NAEP Math Data/

Eductional Testing Services



Mixed but mostly positive. 

Pathways analysis demonstrated that for both 4th and 8th graders several factors contribute to technology’s influence upon student achievement.


Relationships between home and computer use. Importance of  professional development and higher order thinking vs lower order thinking.

Target and prioritize:

1.      Redouble professional development.

2.      Support higher order thinking skills both technologically and traditionally.

Target middle schools rather than elementary schools for more technology

Yekovich, Yekovich, & Nagy-Rado (1999)

Small scale/ Mid-Atlantic Lab for Student Success

ERIC document

TRALE Multimedia computing and enriched classroom


TRALE students saw Grade equivalent score increases on the CTBS in Reading, .83 as compared to control of .24, Language, .7/.07 and Math, 1.78/1.30.


High implementing teachers had average NCE point gains of 10.9 in while low implementing teachers had only a 1.1 NCE point gain. Non-project teachers had a 2.7 NCE gain.

Professional development of teachers and constructive forms of pedagogy.


Chang, Honey, Light, Moeller, & Ross (1998).

City wide study. Center for Children and Technology.

ERIC Document



1st and 4th grade CAT increases in Reading (45%/25%), Math (18%/15%), Writing (34%/14%) 1989-1997.  7th & 8th grade treatment control differnces Passing rates EWT +3%/+7%(reading), +27%/13% (Math) and +32%/10% (Writing).

Professional development of teachers.

Improved school and business relationships.

Increases in budget for technology tied to increases in student performances.

Pisapia, Knutson, Kim, & Coukos (1999).

City wide study.

ERIC Document Paper presentation State AERA conference.



3rd and 6th grade scores on the LTP and CogAT tests. ANCOVA results significant pre-post  improvements in  Verbal, Quantitative, Non-verbal and reading, math, and writing scores.

Importance of professional development for teachers. Perceived improvements in student behaviors especially motivation to learn.


Johnson, Cox, & Watson, (1994).

National study in England. Kings, College. 




English   e.s. 0.09

Math       e.s. 0.31

Geogap   e.s. 0.25

Science   e.s. 0.21

Role of the teacher has pronounce effect on technology and achievement. Access and school location. Constructivist padogogies encouraged.